Cryptologic Miscellaneous

This link will be used to post the title of books, articles and references to material that might be of interest to those that like to read about NSA, its history and cryptology in general. If you come across such material and you think others might be interested, send the information to ncmfweb@aol.com and it will be added to this page.

The postings have  been rather loosely categorized and grouped into:  Books and Things, Cryptanalysis, In the News, NSA Directors, Places and Things, Sources, Videos and Web Sites.

Special Note: The items listed on this page are provided for the information of visitors to the web site – the NCMF is not endorsing or indicating support for any organizations or individuals that are identified or promoting the purchase of anything listed here.

BOOKS AND ARTICLES

The History of Traffic Analysis (posted 4/16/14)

A brochure Titled "The History of Traffic Analysis:  World War I - Vietnam" has been published recently and is available, for free, when you visit the NCM or you can send a request to  Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 9800 Savage Road, Suite 6886, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755
The brochure was written by:   Donald A. Borrmann, William T. Kvetkas, Charles V. Brown, Michael J. Flatley, and Robert Hunt   What follows is a direct quote from the brochure.  The complete brochure, in PDF format, is available from the NSA web site.

Definition
      The word traffic to a communicator or cryptologist referred to communications passed between a sender and an intended recipient.  Thus, the study of traffic by unintended recipients was called traffic analysiS.     T/A has been the study of “external” features of target communications.  It also can be used against non communications electronic emissions and telemetry signals. It examined all aspects of communications transmissions excluding code or cipher message content, which was the purview of cryptanalysis (C/A). Traffic analysts studied signals’ characteristics, including radio frequency usage, callsigns, (a series of letters and/or numbers assigned to a specific radio station), transmission schedules, locations of transmitters, the routings and volumes of message traffic, informal “chatter” between the targets’ radio operators and the unique characteristics exhibited by manual Morse operators, referred to as their “fists.”

      Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is a major segment of the intelligence discipline  and communications intelligence (COMINT) is a subset of SIGINT. In turn, “traffic analysis” (T/A) is a significantpart of COMINT while also useful in other aspects of SIGINT. This brochure defines and explains traffic analysis when used in this context, as part of the broader discipline of signals intelligence. The brochure describes the elements of T/A and explains how T/A has been used for several purposes including to produce intelligence information, to aid cryptanalysis, and to support the collection of additional
data. It then presents examples of intelligence contributions made by T/A during World War I, World War II, and the Cold War, including the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
A key purpose of this brochure is to improve the public’s and intelligence professionals’ understanding of T/A as an intelligence discipline. Further, it is intended that this will be a living document, to be amplified and expanded as the necessary research is completed, especially in light of new real-world examples of traffic analysis at work. In its present form, the report also can be used for historical reference and could even serve as a basis for developing museum displays.

NSA Publication Cryptolog, 1974-1997, Available On Line (10/13/13)

Redacted versions of NSA's (P2) publication Cryptolog were declassified and are available on line at the Cryptome web site. An effort is underway to get donations to support the posting of publications subsequent to 1997.

Bletchley Park: The Codebreakers of Station X by Michael Smith (posted 2/5/13)

The book by Michael Smith, recently released, tells previously untold stories of Bletchley Park. He noted that "One of the most enjoyable things about writing Bletchley Park: The Codebreakers of Station X was the way in which pulling so much information together to provide an easy-to-read guide to the brilliant work of Britain’s wartime codebreakers forced me to focus on the key moments … and the key people. Historians can argue forever about the key points of any battle, or any war. But there is considerable agreement that Bletchley Park helped cut as much as two years off the end of the war, thereby saving many lives. Who the key people were in that amazing achievement is open to much more debate." 

You can read additional comments by Michael in The Guardian. 

The book also makes mention of an event involving the author Agatha Christie who MI5 suspected might have a spy in the government's top-secret codebreaking centre at Bletchley Park.  This suspicion was sparked by the name of a character in her second world war novel N or M, whom she called Major Bletchley. He appears in the book as a friend of Christie's pair of detectives, Tommy and Tuppence.  In the book, published in 1941, N and M are the initials given to two of Hitler's agents as Tommy and Tuppence hunt for the enemy within. Major Bletchley comes across as a tedious former Indian army officer who claims to know the secrets of Britain's wartime efforts.

Read more about the MI5 investigation of Agatha Christie at Shire Books and in the UK The Telegraph.

Book titled Saving Bletchley Park in the works (posted 11/1/12)

In 2003 Sue Black first visited Bletchley Park and has been entranced by it ever since.
In 2008 Bletchley Park was in financial difficulty and she started a campaign to help raise awareness of the amazing contribution of the site and the more than ten thousand young people that worked there during WW2. While the Park's financial state has improved considerably since then, Sue has decided to tell the story of the many campaigns that have taken place over the years into Saving Bletchley Park.

"Code Talker" by Chester Nez with Judith S. Avila (posted 7/7/12) (see below for 1/18/14 update)

The Code Talker is the first and only memoir by one of the original Navajo code talkers of WWII. The book is dedicated to the 420 World War II Navajo Marine code talkers-- men who developed and implemented an unbreakable communications system that helped ensure the American defeat of the Japanese in the South Pacific. After the war, the code talkers were instructed to keep their role in the war secret-- the code was finally declassified in 1968, 23 years after the war's end. Chester Nez is now the last surviving member of the original 29 code talkers.

Their are any number of web sites that provide information on the code talkers but go to their official site as a start.

Film on Chester Nez (updated 1/18/14)

A filmmaker named David DeJonge is creating a short film about Chester Nez and the Navajo Code Talkers that will be used in classroom settings to educate students about what the Code Talkers did and will also be for PBS. DeLonge also did a film called Pershing's Last Patriot. Here is the link to the Preview of the Nez film.

Joe Rochefort's War by Elliot Carlson (posted 10/20/11)

Book cover photo by Naval Institute Press

The Odyssey of the Codebreaker who outwitted Yamamoto at Midway is reviewed by Ronald Russel, Editor and Webmaster of the Midway Round Table with comments by CAPT Jim Fanell and RADM Donald "Mac" Showers. You can order the book from the Naval Institute Press.   

Sensemaking: A Structure for an Intelligence Revolution by David Moore (posted 6/14/11)

Sensemaking is the inaugural book in a new NDIC Press series titled, The A. Denis Clift Series on the Intelligence Profession. The Clift Series will present original research on intelligence analysis and the teaching of intelligence. In 2009, A. Denis Clift concluded a 50-year career with the federal government. Clift was president of the National Defense Intelligence College from 1994 to 2009 and was instrumental in creating the Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, which houses the NDIC Press.
Sensemaking disaggregates, synthesizes, interprets, and communicates multiple perspectives of events, always entertaining new hypotheses, and all against the recognition that dramatic failure (or success) might occur at any moment. This bold, new proposal to make sensemaking a cornerstone for the improvement of Community intelligence practice makes an extraordinary contribution to the literature of intelligence.
Everyone may download a free electronic copy of this book from the NDIC website by going to http://www.ndic.edu/press/pdf/PCN23353.pdf.  U.S. government employees may request a complimentary copy of this book by email at press@ndic.edu.  The general public may purchase a copy from the Government Printing Office (GPO) at http://bookstore.gpo.gov/actions/GetPublication.do?stocknumber=008-000-01041-2

Stories From the Black Chamber, 1935 NBC Radio Show

The show was loosely based on Herbert Osborn Yardley's book The American Black Chamber and it appears that Yardley and Tom Curtan may have been advisors to the show. The Black Chamber ran for 13 episodes before it was cancelled. One or more of the episodes were titled "Secret Ink."

The Secret Sentry by Matthew Aid

Barnes and Noble Review

“Matthew Aid is an indefatigable researcher, poring over documents in government and private archives and conducting interviews with former officials of the National Security Agency.  Aid also delivers excellent accounts of key battles and the role of SIGINT in supporting military maneuvers that were decisive in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the two engagements with Iraq.  By the end of this work, the reader will have a much clearer idea of what the NSA does and how it accomplishes its mission, as well as insights about why the NSA needs to restructure itself so that in the future it will be able to accomplish more and do so with less resources.”

There is a lot on Matthew Aid on the internet.  Google his name and you will find a wealth of information not only about The Secret Sentry but his other writings.

9800 Savage Road by M.E. Harrigan  

"{In this} taut, timely thriller 9800 Savage Road,, Harrigan has done what multiple Directors of NSA have been unable to do:  put a human face on one of America's most secretive and most valuable intelligence organizations.  M. E. Harrigan dishes up suspense, espionage and patriotism all in one serving."

  -- Gen. Michael V. Hayden, U.S Air Force (ret), Director of NSA (1999-2005)  

CRYPTANALYSIS

Breakthrough in Voynich Manuscript? (posted 2/22/14)

A breakthrough has been made in attempts to decipher the Voynich manuscript, a mysterious 600-year-old manuscript written in an unknown language,

The Voynich Manuscript, carbon-dated to the 1400s, was rediscovered in 1912, but has defied codebreakers since.

Now, Bedfordshire (UK) University's Stephen Bax says he has deciphered 10 words, which could lead to more discoveries. Read the details in the UK BBC News'

Coded POW letters from WWII Solved (posted 5/2/13)

The letters sent back home by Sub-Lieutenant John Pryor from a German prison camp seemed innocent enough.  They often started with 'My Dear Mummy & Daddy' and talked about mundane things such as gardening and a 'vegetable patch'.  But the British wartime letters actually contained hidden messages, which have only now been deciphered by academics.   It is the first time the captured serviceman's family has been able to understand the secret messages.

Sub Lt Pryor, pictured below, was captured at Dunkirk in 1940 and sent to a prisoner of war camp.  Read more in the U.K Daily Mail.

Old German Enigma Messages Solved (posted 1/30/13)

Ron Brelsford sent a note to Dave D'Auria, our head of Acquisitons for the NCM, that noted:  "As an appendix to my volunteer work in the Military Intelligence Service technical collection, I got hold of 50 unsolved German Enigma-messages, recovered a number of years ago from a German U-boat, sunk in Danish waters in the last days of WW2. At a conference in Germany in June for crypto historians I met a young German engineer who had tried in vain to solve old Enigma messages. He succeeded in solving almost all of mine, with a little help from me and an American Enigma-fan. That was a lot of fun, a lot of work, and a bit of a sensation. Anyone interested can find more on his website,  Breaking German Navy Ciphers."      

Dorabella Cipher Solved by Tim Roberts (posted 1/25/12)

Tim Roberts has offered a viable solution to the Dorabella Cipher, an encrypted message sent by the celebrated English composer Edward Elgar to a young lady companion in 1897. Tim is on the Faculty of Arts, Business, Informatics and Education at CQ University Australia.  The Dorabella cipher is listed on the site created by Elonka Dunin which provides an unofficial list of well-known unsolved codes and ciphers. Tim's solution can be found by clicking on this link to a PDF document.

October 13, 2013 - Slightly revised solution submitted by Tim " The only difference from the original version is a change in the last line of the key.  The order of the symbols that Elgar used in this third line always slightly puzzled me.  No longer.  The slightly revised key "Lady Penny, writing in code is a way to keep busy" removes this anomale."

Early Use of One-Time Pad Technique Discovered (posted 11/24/11)

In an article by John Markof on July 25, 2011, he discusses a finding by Steven Bellovin in the Library of Congress of a codebook that describes a technique called the one time pad.  The codebook was published fully 35 years before its supposed invention during World War I by Gilbert Vernan. 

Nick Pelling's Cipher Mysteries (posted 11/14/11)

A blog devoted to real unsolved historical code/cipher mysteries, as well as to exploring how those objects get portrayed in books, films, TV, radio, music, opera, sculpture, design, metalworking, eBay scams, etc. Find the latest on unsolved codes and ciphers such as the Voynich Manuscript, the Kryptos sculpture at CIA and many others. You can subscribe for free and receive daily alerts/updates.

Researchers decode the Copiale cipher, working on the Voynich manuscript (posted 10/31/11)


A team of researchers made headlines for decoding a secret society's 18th century manuscript called the Copiale cipher. The Copiale Cypher - a mysterious cryptogram bound in gold and green brocade paper -- is a 250-year-old coded document that when decrypted uncovered the inner workings of an 18th-century secret society. The team of researchers is working to reveal the secret behind an even more mysterious undecrypted document, the Voynich Manuscript.   Found in a chest of books outside Rome by a dealer in antique books, the Voynich Manuscript has remained one of history’s biggest mysteries: Its aging parchment is coated in alien characters and has for centuries mystified scientists.

IN THE NEWS

Michael Hayden's Perspective on Snowden and NSA (posted 1/18/14)

Michael Hayden, Director of NSA 1999-2005 and Director of CIA 2006-2009, provides his perspective on NSA post Snowden in an article titled "Beyond Snowden: An NSA Reality Check"   in the January/February issue of the World Affairs Journal.  Thoughtful comments worth reading.

In Defense of NSA (posted 1/10/14)

In an article in the Washington Post on January 2, 2014, John McLaughlin, deputy director and acting director of the CIA from 2000-2004, notes that "It’s time we all came to our senses about the National Security Agency (NSA). If it is true, as many allege, that the United States went a little nuts in its all-out pursuit of al-Qaeda after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, it is equally true that we are going a little nuts again in our dogged pursuit of the post-Snowden NSA.

Read the complete article in the Post.

Other articles appearing in the Washington Post by Steven Bradbury, Robert Samuelson, and Richard Cohen provide additional perspectives on the Snowden exposures.

Alan Turing pardoned 12/23/13 (posted 12/14/13)

Nearly 60 years after his death, Alan Turing, the British mathematician regarded as one of the central figures in the development of the computer, received a formal pardon from Queen Elizabeth II on Monday for his conviction in 1952 on charges of homosexuality, at the time a criminal offense in Britain.

More details are available in the New York Times article.

USS Pueblo on Display in North Korea (posted 8/8/13)

The Pueblo went on display in North Korea this week sporting a fresh coat of paint and the reminders of the only US Navy ship still being held by a foreign government. North Korea captured the USS Pueblo in the late 1960's of the country's east coast. After a brief firefight during which one U.S. crew member was killed, the ship was seized. The crew was eventually released but North Korea kept the ship. For more on the story, including photos of the ship go to the article in The Inquisitr and also artdaily.org.

EC 47 shot down on February 5, 1969 (posted 3/9/13)

     On February 5, 1969 an EC-47Q code named CAP-72 left Plieku in South Vietnam on a reconnaissance mission with 10 crewman aboard and did not return. The crash site was visited by a Security Recovery Team that recovered 30 pounds of the possible 200 lbs of skeletal mass. The mortuary said there were only seven accounted for and there needed to be a return to the crash site to achieve a "Maximum Recovery". When the remains reached Dover, Delaware's mortuary the accounting of remains was listed as only five. These remains were interred at Jefferson Barracks in 1969 and a headstone listed the names of all 10 crewmen.
      In 1995 JTF-FA (now JPAC) stumbled on the crash site and thought they had found a new previously unknown crash site. They found the dog tag of the co-pilot.of the EC-47 and more remains of the crew were recovered from the test pits. Another excavation of the site was scheduled for 1996. The remains recovered in 1995 are now either at Hickam AFB, HI or on their way to Offut AFB, NE for DNA analysis.
      Maximum Recoveryin South East Asia (MRSEA), led by the son of one of the crewman, took ownership of driving the accounting for the crew of the EC-47Q and a Search and Recovery Mission was executed in December 2012 to Southern Laos.. It was during this mission when more remains of the crew were recovered and returned to the United States. These remains will be repatriated  on May 25, 2013 in Olive Branch, MS. After repatriation the remains will be turned over to the Department of Defense for DNA analysis and identification. This event is open to the general public and everyone is invited to attend this seldom seen and memorable ceremony to honor and remember these heroes who made the supreme sacrifice for the liberties we enjoy.
      The remains buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in Missouri were disinterred in February 2013 for DNA testing to try to determine which of the crew had been returned home but no results have been announced at this time.
      It has been over 44 years since the families of the crewman lost their loved ones and many have not reached closure as to where their loved ones are located, dead or alive. They deserve better!

      Larry Tart has produced a video of the May 25 repatriation ceremony which can be viewed on youtube

      The five USAFSS members of the crew have been honored by their names being placed on NSA's Memorial Wall.

Bletchley’s forgotten heroes (posted 1/30/13)

While Alan Turing has been justly celebrated in his centenary year, there were other brilliant codebreakers, says Ian Douglas.   Read his article in the UK "The Telegraph" about the restoration work at Bletchley and some of the magnificent work done there during World War II.  The photo below, from his article, shows women breaking codes at Bletchley.


The Adventures of Lightning Ellsworth, Civil War Intercept Operator (posted 1/9/13)

In December 1862, Gen. Braxton Bragg, commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, was encamped around Murfreesboro, Tenn. Nearby, poised to attack him, was Union major general William S. Rosecrans’s Army of the Cumberland, headquartered just 35 miles away in Nashville.

Bragg's telegraph operator, George A. Ellsworth, born in Canada, was only 19 years old, but he already had years of experience in his trade.  Using a pocket instrument that he attached to telegraph wires, Ellsworth immediately demonstrated a quick-witted ability to intercept messages, mimic operators on the line, absorb information and tap out false messages to federal commanders.

Read more about his exploits in this New York Times article.

Spy Museum at the Navy's Corry Station (posted 12/5/12)

Tucked away at Corry Station in Pensacola, Florida is a small museum chock full of artifacts that were once military secrets.  The base is focused on training communication intelligence specialists for all branches of the military in numbers that range from 1,200 to about 2,000 at times.  Former Navy Master Chiefs such as John Gustafson and Robert Anderson can give you an hour-plus tour of the espionage repository, known at Corry as the Cryptologic Command Display.

Univ of Tulsa, the School That Trains Cyber Spies (posted 12/1/12)

The University of Tulsa's Cyber Corps' program is training students to write viruses, hack networks, crack passwords and mine data.  The little know course has been named as one of four "centers of excellence" and places 85 per cent of graduates with the NSA or CIA.  Read more in the UK Daily Mail

The University of Tulsa is one of several schools with outstanding cyber security credentials. In fact, there are more than 150 schools designated by the Department of Homeland Security and NSA as Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education and Research, and the number is growing

Ten British Computers that Changed the World (posted 11/26/12)

The world’s oldest working digital computer (pictured below) has been brought back to life at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire. Witch, the machine’s nickname, is not the only British computer to make history. The UK has been at the forefront of this technological revolution. Go here to read about ten other British computers that changed the world.

 

Poles Launch Campaign for Enigma Code Breaking Recognition (posted 10/10/12)

Decades after Nazi Germany's Enigma code was first cracked, Poland has gone on the offensive to reclaim the glory of a cryptological success it feels has been unjustly claimed by Britain.  Frustrated at watching the achievements of the British wartime code breakers at Bletchley Park lauded while those of Poles go overlooked, Poland's parliament has launched a campaign to "restore justice" to the Polish men and women who first broke the Enigma codes.

Eavesdroppers in Disguise (posted 8/20/12)

Article by Jeffrey T. Richelson in the Airforce Magazine discusses how the supersecret 7500-series satellites for years soaked up Soviet communications, while most assumed they performed missile warning missions.

Flaw Found in an Online Encryption Method (posted 2/17/12)

A team of European and American mathematicians and cryptographers have discovered an unexpected weakness in the encryption system widely used worldwide for online shopping, banking, e-mail and other Internet services intended to remain private and secure.   Read the article in the New York Times.

Lloyd Oliver, One Of The Last Early Navajo Code Talkers, Dies (posted 3/24/11)

Lloyd Oliver, a resident of Glendale, Arizona was the second-to-last remaining Navajo Code Talker of the original group that designed an unbreakable oral code using their native tongue to confuse the Japanese during World War II. The last survivor, Chester Nez, lives in New Mexico.

Alan Turing and the birth of modern computing (posted 2/21/11)

Article on Alan Turing and his role in developing Colossus, the first practical electronic digital information processing machine in the world.

BBC News Magazine article titled The Piece of Paper that fooled Hitler (posted 1/28/11)

The article starts "It was an audacious double-cross that fooled the Nazis and shortened World War II. Now a document, here published for the first time, reveals the crucial role played by Britain's code-breaking experts in the 1944 invasion of France."

Dave Gaddy and the Civil War encrypted message (posted 12/29/10)

Read all about the decryption of the encrypted message in a sealed vial by visiting the following sites:

Museum of the Confederacy

Article in Britains Daily Mail -

Audio interview with museums's collections manager, Catherine Wright -

Navajo Code Talkers

Article in USA Today on November 11 about the Navajo Code Talkers efforts to build a museum and veterans center on the Navajo reservation in Arizona. 

NSA DIRECTORS

NSA's Past and Present Directors

Click on image for an expanded view!

The Future of Things "Cyber" by Gen. Michael Hayden (posted 5/4/11)

An article written by General Michael Hayden, past Director of NSA and CIA and current member of the NCMF Board of Directors on The Future of Things "Cyber" is featured in the Spring 2011 edition of Strategic Studies Quarterly.

NSA Director, Gen. Keith Alexander, Defends Surveillance Programs (posted 10/13/13)

The Director testified at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on Capitol Hill, October 2, 2013 in Washington, DC. The committee is hearing testimony on oversight of the foreign intelligence surveillance act.   Read the New York Times recap of his testimony.

A comprehensive paper on NSA's Missions, Authorities, Oversight and Partnerships, published on August 9, 2013, is available on the NSA Web site --- MUST READ!!

PLACES AND THINGS

Hebern code machine in actual use (posted 4/26/13)

A photo of the Hebern electric code machine in actual use in a D.C. Western Union office in March 1923 has been placed on the Shorpy web site.  The machine pictured is almost identical to the one on display in the NCM. 

Harris & Ewing Collection glass negative

FS Teufelsberg then and now (posted 4/18/13)

This massive hill was called Devil’s Mountain, or Teufelsberg in German. It was on Devil’s Mountain where the NSA built one of the largest and highly classified Listening Stations in the world to eavesdrop and spy, intercepting Soviet, East German and other countries’ communications. The station continued to operate until the fall of East Germany and the Berlin Wall. Yet after the station was closed, abandoned, and the equipment removed, the derelict buildings and radar domes still remained.  The image below is of the station while still operational.

 The site was in the news again with a major article in the UK Mail.

Click on image for larger view

Riverbank Laboratories, Geneva, Illinois (posted 5/6/12)

Did you know about the Riverbank Laboratories, considered by some to be the direct lineal predecessor of the National Security Agency and Central Intelligence Agency? William Friedman began his career there in 1915 as the head of the Department of Genetics. Elizabeth Smith joined the Department of Ciphers at Riverbank in 1916. William and Elizabeth were married in May of 1917. Go to the Riverbank Laboratories web site for more information on the Labs history and the lives of William and Elizabeth Friedman.

Chatham station played pivotal WWII role:  Secret listening post collected U-boat messages to be decoded (posted 9/18/11)

"During World War II, as London burned and German submarines circled like sharks off the Atlantic Coast, the US Navy plotted a secret attack against the Nazis.

In a nondescript red-brick building in this sleepy Cape Cod town, the Navy converted a wireless radio receiving station into an intelligence hub that intercepted coded messages from German submarines and transmitted them to Washington, D.C., to be analyzed. The initiative, which ran from 1942 until the end of the war, employed nearly 600 sailors. But what went on inside the station was so secret that the naval archives has almost no information on it, and many longtime Chatham residents are just hearing about it now."  Read the complete article by Laura Nelson, Globe Correspondent.

SOURCES

VIDEOS

Interview with RADM "Mac" Showers


RADM Donald "Mac" Showers passed away on October 19, 2012. On September 23, 2010 he did an interview covering his experiences in the Navy. The interview is available, in four parts, on Youtube. You can also read an article on his passing at ctovision.

Battle for Midway Reviewed (posted 6/2/12)

Professor Craig Symonds, U.S. Naval Academy and Pat Weadon, NCM Curator discuss the Battle for Midway in this video. 

NCM Curator, Pat Weadon, briefs visitors (posted 5/27/12)

If you have about 30 minutes, watch this clip which shows Pat briefing some of the NCM exhibits. Among the exhibits that Pat briefs is the Great Seal, presented to the Ambassador to the Soviet Union by Russian children one 4th of July.  It was mounted in the Ambassadors office in Moscow and it was bugged!

WEB SITES

Top 5 Intelligence Agency Supercomputers (posted 2/13/13)

Read the article about these five computers, Including Harvest, on the Clearancejobs.com web site. The article notes that the intelligence community doesn't get enough credit for its contribution to the information age. This site is the largest online career resource for cleared professionals.

Famous Unsolved Codes and Ciphers

The site created by Elonka Dunin provides an unofficial list of well-known unsolved codes and ciphers. A couple of the better-known unsolved ancient historical scripts are also thrown in, since they tend to come up during any discussion of unsolved codes. There has also been an attempt to sort this list by "fame", as defined by a loose formula involving the number of times that a particular cipher has been written about, and/or how many hits it pulls up on a moderately-sorted web search.

Chaocipher Clearing House

The site hosted by Moshe Rubin is a clearing house for general information about Chaocipher. It presents fact, fiction and folklore about John Byrne's legendary invention.